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Pemilihan Lokasi Jalan Rel
Ditulis oleh Irwan Joe   
Selasa, 06 Mei 2008
Disadur dari Centre of Transportation Research and Education, Iowa State University, CE353 Lecture


William W. Hay defines excellence in engineering as an economic combination of traffic, distance, curvature, rise and fall, and gradient. The concepts described as related to the location process apply equally to new construction, realignment, and major rehabilitation. This is particularly important given the maturity of the rail and highway transport systems (e.g., few new rail lines are being constructed today).

Location
  • General Steps in the Planning and Design Process
    1. Establish need
    2. Establish/define basic features
      • Termini
      • General location
      • Size or class
      • Level of service
    3. Identify and compare preliminary alternative alignments
    4. Choose preferred preliminary alignment
    5. Final design (including Horizontal/vertical alignment, dimensions/slopes, standards, quantities and types)
    6. Location influences cost and other impacts (environmental, socio-economic, operational, etc.)
Factors

  • Topography/terrain
  • Manmade development
  • Operating speeds
  • Use (freight or passenger train traffic)
  • Tonnage
  • Type of rolling stock
  • Physical features
  • Ground Cover
  • Weather
  • Water Course
  • Water Table
  • Soil Conditions
  • Location of Resources (for contruction and market)
  • Location of Industry
  • Towns
  • Highways
  • Railroads
  • Mountain Passes
  • River Crossing Sites
  • Traffic Centers
  • Population Centers
Controlling factors that depend upon terrain

  • Level terrain
    • Right of way cost
    • Land use
    • Bridges
    • Existing roads, rail, power lines
    • Subgrade condition
    • Availability of borrow
  • Rolling terrain

    • Grade and curvature considered carefully
    • Depth of cut, height of fill
    • Drainage structures
    • Number of bridges
  • Mountainous terrain

    • Grade controls (maximum grade criteria)
Preliminary Location

Final Design

  • Use 100 scale maps (1:1200, others 1:1000 or 1:500)
  • Set horizontal and vertical controls
  • Calculate tangents, curve lengths, superelevation transition, ...
  • Try to balance cut (waste) and fill (borrow)
  • Hauls should be downhill and short
  • Place crests in cuts and sags in fills
  • Use long tangents and long curves, short tangents with sharp curves
  • Provide for Drainage
  • Consider operational impact of design
  • Max grade of 1 degree if possible, 2-2.5 in mountainous areas possible (see lectures on motive power and resistive forces to determine power requirements.)
Economic Analysis

    For a profitable line, choose the line with the highest p ...
     

    To account for time value of money, and to put costs and expenses into the same units, must use an anualized cost...

     

    For a subsidized line, do a benefit/cost analysis, and choose the one with the highest B/C ...

     

    Can also use present worth ...

     

     

 
To compute present value of building the line, compute present value of components individually or use a weighted average of anticipated useful life ...
  • 40 yrs. for structures
  • 50-100 yrs. for ROW
  • 20-30 yrs. for rolling stock
“Maafkan saya yang hina telah buta, tidak melihat gunung Thay Shan yang tinggi telah berdiri di depan mata." (Kam Hong Tie dan saya dihadapan teman-teman)

Terakhir diperbaharui ( Selasa, 05 Agustus 2008 )

 
 
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